The packaging encyclopaedia for the industry:
Special varnish with anti-slip coating of the surface, e.g. to inhibit slipping of stacked packages during transport.
Corrugated board packaging with automatic bottom can be erected with a flick of the wrist. A light pressure on the sides causes the bottom of the packaging to snap into place. The packaging is ready for immediate use, moreover, it is stable, and it can withstand even heavy contents.
Bag-in-box packaging includes a plastic inner bag with a tap inside a corrugated board or carton packaging. This packaging system is ideal for products such as juice, dairy products, wine and liquid detergents. Bag-in-box packaging comes in different sizes with different capacities. The amount of plastic can be reduced with bag-in-box packaging.
Bar / bar set
Corrugated cardboard bars or bar sets generally describe the interior fittings of a transport/sales packaging to ensure that the goods arrive undamaged, e.g. lattice compartment inserts, inserts, partitions that have a stabilising effect and prevent the goods from touching each other. Due to their stabilising function, bars / bar sets are also used in display bases and/or display crates, among other things.
Barrier papers are used where protection against moisture, fats, oils, contamination, etc. is required (e.g. food industry, hygiene articles / detergents). Special multi-layer coating applications create a dense and closed paper surface that prevents both contamination and the penetration of e.g. fats.
BCT (Box Compression Test)
BCT test method: The stacking compression resistance / BCT value provides information about the stability of a packaging. It measures the force that a closed, unfilled packaging can absorb under pressure without buckling. The measure of stability is given in newton (N) or kilonewton (kN).
A bonnet made of corrugated board is primarily used to protect the product and is pulled / put over an equipped display, for example, to protect the goods and the display during transport to the retailer. Another possible use: Due to the strength and stability of removable corrugated board bonnets for shelf-ready packaging solutions, the product remains undamaged during transport and reaches the customer in optimal condition.
BRC-IoP (standard of the British Retail Consortium and the Institute of Packaging)
The BRC standard for packaging and packaging materials is recognized by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI). It defines safety and quality guidelines for food and ensures that packaging meets the requirements of customers.
BWS / BST (Berstwiderstand / Bursting Strength Test)
Corrugated board serves as transport packaging. The requirements for its stability are high. Quality inspectors use special testing machines and specific test methods to test the load-bearing capacity of packaging. One of the most important test methods is the bursting strength test (BST). The German term BWS (Berstwiderstand) is now considered obsolete. Bursting strength is the resistance that the material offers to a unilateral, uniformly increasing force until it breaks. The measured value is given in kilopascal (kPa).
Abbreviation for Computer-Aided Design. This is software for creating designs, constructions and technical drawings in 2D and 3D on the computer.
The word “cardboard” has two meanings: It is a material made from cellulose, groundwood pulp and wastepaper and a cardboard box made from this material. The terms box, cardboard box and carton (borrowed from the French “carton”) are used as synonyms for cardboard.
To print a packaging using flexoprinting, a printing plate or artwork must be made, the so-called cliché. See flexoprinting.
The CMYK colour profile is the currently valid colour model for four-colour printing. All colours here develop from the three basic colours cyan (blue), magenta, and yellow (yellow), plus a black component called key or key colour.
CO2 footprint (Sustainability/climate-neutral packaging)
People consume raw materials and energy. As a result, they produce waste and exhaust gases. Depending on their lifestyle, the so-called “ecological footprint” that a person leaves behind on the earth varies. This is the result of an emissions calculation. It is the amount of greenhouse gases required to provide the necessary raw materials and energy. The ecological footprint can be determined not only for individual people, but also for companies and for production processes.
Corrugated base paper with particularly good printing properties. By applying a special top layer, the surface is closed, and thus particularly fine printing results are possible. The surface appears smoother, more stable and whiter.
Available as Kraftliner, Testliner or GD2 (Chromoduplex). In use from 140 gr/sqm (GD2 from 180 gr/sqm).
Test method: water absorption capacity of paper, solid board or corrugated board. The method is used to determine the water absorption in g/m², whereby the exposure time of the water to the paper surface is precisely defined and must be observed.
Code of conduct
Sets out rules of behaviour in companies.
Colorimetry and colour measurement
Colorimetry, also known as colour theory, is a branch of colour science. It includes, on the one hand, the study of human colour perception. On the other hand, the origin of colour in materials is investigated. Colorimetry evaluates colour measurements with the aim of recording the visual perception of “colour” as colour valence with colorimetric numbers. This is the basis for colour reproduction in printing.
Many colours that the human eye perceives cannot be represented in print using the methods available today. There is only a certain representable range called “colour space”. When printed on paper (CMYK), this range is much smaller than when displayed on a screen (RGB). The colour space determines the representable data of the colours. Each visible colour has a specific position in the coordinate system and can be represented spatially or three-dimensionally. The CMYK colour model enables four-colour printing according to the Euro/ISO scale, DIN 16539. The abbreviation CMYK stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and the black component “Key”, which indicates the contrast.
LaB: The LaB colour space is used to calculate and evaluate colour distances. In this colour space, equal colour distances (Delta-E) appear the same to the human eye. This is how we judge whether a colour sample is accurately represented in print.
The “L” stands for the light/dark axis. The a-value defines the red/green axis, the b-value the blue/yellow axis. Delta-E: Delta-E is considered a measure of colour differences that the human eye can perceive. The colour difference helps to estimate how accurately a colour sample, or a specific colour is hit in print. Comparing the colours of the original and the print is a crucial step in production.
Compartments are mostly used in transport packaging. These are cleverly linked dividers / separators made of corrugated board (lattice compartment inserts) that have a stabilising effect and prevent the goods from touching each other.
A consignment warehouse is a warehouse that a supplier sets up and maintains for a specific customer on the customer’s company premises. The customer provides the required storage space free of charge. He also insures the goods against water damage, fire and theft. The supplier fills the warehouse on his own responsibility. The goods remain the property of the supplier until the customer requires them and removes them from the warehouse. After removal, he pays for the goods.
Co-packing is short for “contract packing” which is a contract packing service.
Corrugating medium is made from high-quality wastepaper and is given the necessary strength by various additives (e.g. starch). Corrugated board machine (corrugator): A corrugator brings the flute into the paper through heat and moisture and produces the corrugated board by gluing together at least one smooth and one corrugated paper sheet.
The classic corrugated board was developed as early as 1871 and is still the absolute number 1 among packaging materials today.
Corrugated board packaging (Products/Packaging)
Corrugated board packaging is packaging made from the corrugated board cellulose product.
Counter display (Products/POS Displays/Counter Displays)
Counter displays are small freestanding sales display racks for product presentation that are placed at immediate reach height on sales counters at the point of sale.
Stackable packaging for transport and storage, mainly for perishable foodstuffs (e.g. fruit, vegetables).
During the further processing of corrugated board, notches (creases) are made in the material by machine in order to be able to fold packaging in a defined way and with less effort.
A dry colour testing method developed by the DuPont company. The colour result can be checked by means of a press proof before the actual printing.
One- or two-piece packaging made of corrugated board, which has a typical cross shape.
The crush resistance determines how much an empty package can withstand before it collapses. The crush resistance is measured as part of the crush test (BCT) according to DIN 55440 and is one of the quality characteristics of a package.
Computer-to-plate refers to a process in which printing plates are imaged digitally, directly from the PC via the imagesetter.
a) Corrugated board sheets in various sizes, flute types and combinations
b) Flat-lying, die-cut packaging that has not yet been folded, erected and glued
Liquids, goods and things that can pose a danger to people, animals and the environment are considered dangerous goods. These include chemicals, spray cans, fertilisers, explosives and liquid nitrogen. The packaging of these dangerous substances and objects must be officially tested. The requirements for their stability are high. It is also mandatory to mark them with dangerous goods labels.
Data check (Preflight / PitStop)
Check of the print data, for example whether the correct file format or colour space has been used. Or whether the quality of the images or the entire colour application is sufficient.
Generic term for customised packaging made from a flat sheet of corrugated board using a die-cutting tool under pressure. Die-cut packaging offers a wide range of design options and is constructed individually for each customer.
Printing process that does not require printing plates / print substrate. Instead, the print image is transferred directly from the computer to the digital printing machine and printed. The process is ideal for short and medium runs with high print quality. There is no need for time-consuming setup of the printing machine, unlike flexographic and offset printing.
Direct offset printing
In direct offset printing, the corrugated board sheet is printed directly and not, as is usual in offset printing, a cardboard sheet that is then glued (laminated) to an open or closed corrugated board sheet. Since the sheets of corrugated board have to pass through the printing machine, only ultra-fine flutes such as F- and G-flute are usually suitable for direct offset printing.
Dispersion varnish is applied to the printed cardboard after the end of the actual printing process. The varnish seals the ink. This enhances the surface and protects the packaging from scratches and abrasion. In addition, the surface is slightly water-repellent after the application of dispersion varnish.
Displays (Products/POS Displays)
Displays are used as secondary placement at the point of sale (POS) to present and sell a product at an additional retail space in addition to the presentation on the normal shelf.
Display development (services/development)
Display development is the phase between the first customer meeting and readiness for series production. Every packaging solution and every display is developed in close cooperation with customers and their specific wishes and needs. There are four steps in every packaging or display development: 1. Detailed briefing. 2. Design of the packaging on the PC and digital sampling in 3D with CAD support. 3. White sample production and testing in various test procedures. 4. Series production.
Gluing two corrugated sheets and three smooth paper sheets results in the double flute (double flute corrugated board). Different flute types can be combined in the double flute. Generally, a coarse or medium flute is combined with a fine flute (e.g. BC flute: fine and medium flute).
Double flute combination
Combination of individual flute types (e.g. E, B, C flute) to form a double flute with two flute sheets (e.g. E/B flute).
This is a two-stage finishing process in sheetfed offset printing. It can be used to achieve impressive matt-gloss contrasts and matt-texture effects. Conventional offset printing inks are used. A special matt varnish (oil-based varnish) is applied over the entire surface or on parts of the printing substrate. This is followed by a full-area high-gloss varnish with dispersion or UV varnish using the wet-on-wet process. Where the matt varnish is located, the gloss varnish drips off. This is where the term “drip-off” comes from. This technique uses the principle of repulsion of grease (oil-based varnish) and water (dispersion varnish). The recesses on the printing plate are accentuated in the print varnish with a high gloss. The fully varnished image elements either remain matt – when the varnishes combine – or show a gloss effect in the areas where the matt varnish has been left out.
DTP (Desktop Publishing)
Desktop publishing means ‘publishing from the desktop’ and is the computer-aided typesetting of documents consisting of text and images, which are later used as publications.
Also called hand sample, serves as a control in the release process. If possible, it is created in a 1:1 ratio.
EAN (European Article Number)
The EAN number (European Article Number) is a machine-readable barcode that provides a product with an internationally distinctive identification. It consists of either eight or 13 digits. In Germany, an organization called GS1 Germany is responsible for assigning the numbers.
ECMA code (European Carton Makers Association)
Developed by the European Carton Makers Association (ECMA), the ECMA code comprises a collection of technical standards according to which die-cut packaging and folded boxes are produced. This collection can be used to develop almost all forms of folded boxes.
The eco-signet of the VDW (Verband der Wellpappen-Industrie e.V. – German Association of the Corrugated Board Industry) provides information as a clear sign of environmental compatibility. Packaging or a display made of corrugated board consists of 100 % renewable raw materials and is fully recyclable. This is communicated via the signet. The consumer learns that corrugated board has a natural origin and can be disposed of with a clear conscience after use – because it is 100 percent recycled via wastepaper.
ECT (Edge Crush Test)
Test method: The stackability – and thus the storability – of a corrugated board packaging is tested. The value provides information on how resilient the side walls of a packaging are (edge crush resistance) when a weight is applied to them from above. For this purpose, pressure is applied to a vertically positioned corrugated board sample until it yields. It is measured in kilonewton per meter (kN/m).
EDI (Electronic Data Interchange)
EDI makes paper documents superfluous. Data is captured electronically and transferred in a standard format. Both sender and recipient can read the document. This enables the uncomplicated exchange of business documents between companies. As a result, business can be conducted more quickly because electronic documents are automatically integrated into other business systems without manual intervention.
ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) packaging
ESD means “Electrostatic Discharge”. Packaging that protects electronic components from voltage damage, e.g. packaging made of electrically conductive corrugated board. The electrostatic discharge takes place via conductive coatings on the corrugated board surface.
FCT (Flat Crush Test)
Test method: A common test method to measure the quality, or more precisely the stiffness, of corrugated board is the flat crush resistance. It describes the force with which single-flute corrugated board can be loaded by a vertically acting weight until the flutes collapse. The value is given in kilopascal (kPA).
This is a standard directory of the box industry for storage and transport packaging. FEFCO (Fédération Européenne des Fabricants de Carton Ondule) represents the interests of the corrugated board industry. Today, the non-profit organisation is called the “European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacturers”. Its headquarters are in Brussels. FEFCO introduced the so-called FEFCO code. It divides all packaging made of solid or corrugated board into different basic types and assigns them – according to their design – a four-digit code. There are additional symbols for cuts and grooves, slits, punch-outs and flaps. These ensure that the packaging can be folded and erected later. This system is internationally valid. The FEFCO code facilitates communication between customers and manufacturers.
Optical possibility to give the printed product a special touch after the actual printing process. There are countless possibilities to finish a printed product:
Hot foil stamping
To avoid unsightly white flashes on printed products, certain elements are enlarged or reduced in size in the print build-up. Depending on the colour tone, the size of the trapping varies; the size of the trapping is less than one millimetre.
Flatbed die cutter
Processing machine for die-cutting, creasing, perforating, stripping and blanking of corrugated board sheets. For the die-cutting process, the flat lying tool is pressed against a flat lying counter plate. The corrugated board sheet is located in between.
Flexoprinting / flexo direct-printing / flexo post-printing
Flexoprinting is a letterpress process in which flexible printing plates (so-called clichés) are used to apply the motif to the corrugated board. The printing areas are higher than the non-printing areas. There are laser-engraved printing plates made of rubber and photopolymer plates made of UV-sensitive plastic. Using a printing pump, the flexographic inks are first transferred to the printing plates via rollers and then printed directly onto the corrugated board.
This is where the corrugated base paper is printed, which is later used as top sheet in the corrugating machine.
– Flute stability of the corrugated board is not affected during printing
– Lighter grammages can be used
Floor display (Products/POS Displays/Floor Displays)
Floor displays or free-standing display racks are advertising media for the secondary placement of goods directly at the point of sale (POS).
The flute is manufactured in different dimensions. The individual flute types differ according to their size (flute height) and flute pitch (dimension between two flute peaks).
Foil stamping of hot / cold foil (finishing process)
Hot foil stamping: Foils are released by pressure and heat and pressed onto the paper or board. Hot foil can be used regardless of the surface quality of the substrate. Glossy to textured materials as well as unprinted to printed surfaces are possible.
Cold foil stamping: The foil coating is applied to the board without high temperature or additional tooling. The cold foil offers new design possibilities and is transferred by offset. From solid areas to half-tone / colour gradients, everything is possible. The cold foil can be overprinted and overpainted offline.
Folding boxes are pre-glued and are easily and quickly erected before filling. This has the advantage that they can be delivered and stored flat to save space.
Folding box gluing machine
This processing machine transforms a die-cut, creased, flat-lying packaging blank into the end product, the folding box.
For this purpose, the blank is folded along the creasing, provided with adhesive and then glued.
Folded bottom packaging
Packaging already pre-glued by the manufacturer.
FSC® / FSC® packaging (Sustainability/Certifications)
The abbreviation FSC® stands for “Forest Stewardship Council®”. This is a globally recognised certification system for sustainable forest management. The FSC® seal of approval is awarded to wood and paper products such as furniture, exercise books or packaging that can be proven to originate from sustainable forestry. The awarding of the certificate is reviewed annually. Around 200 million hectares of forest are FSC® certified internationally. The FSC® has also existed in Germany since 1997. It is recognised as a non-profit association.
GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) (Company/Management Systems)
GMP means “Good Manufacturing Practice” and is part of quality assurance. It is an industry standard that was developed and adopted at the end of 2003 by the European trade associations FEFCO and ESBO in cooperation with international food companies. The reason for this is the increasing requirements of brand-name manufacturers in the food and pharmaceutical industries. One aim of GMP is to guarantee traceability from the purchase of raw materials to the delivery of the finished product.
The grammage according to DIN EN ISO 536 expresses the weight of a paper or corrugated board grade, is given in g/m² and plays an important role in quality determination and cost calculation. Test method: For weight control, paper samples are taken from the paper delivery, which are then climatized to standard climate (23°C and 50% humidity) in the laboratory. Round samples of 100 cm² are then cut out of the paper sheet with a sample cutter and weighed. The balance accurately determines the weight of one square metre to one gram. The determined weight must then be converted to an area of 1 m² (10,000 cm²).
Grass paper (Sustainability/Innovation Management)
Grass paper consists of approx. 40 % sun-dried grass and 60 % FSC®-certified pulp, i.e. 100 % renewable, recyclable and naturally grown raw materials. Grass is a rapidly renewable raw material from local sources. The hay is chopped into very short fibres, further ground and mechanically pressed into pellets. Paper mills turn these into paper with the help of water. The production of grass paper has a better ecological balance in terms of water and energy consumption as well as the use of chemicals than the extraction of pulp from wood.
Groundwood pulp is produced in a mechanical way: Machines press debarked softwoods such as spruce with hot water against rotating grinding stones. In the process, the stone surface tears the wood apart: this produces short fibres of 1 – 4 mm in length as well as fibre pieces and particles. The addition of water transforms the obtained wood fibres into a fibre pulp. Groundwood pulp is an inexpensive fibre material that also contains wood components such as lignin and resin. It is hard and slightly yellowish in colour. Groundwood pulp is used in the production of cake and pie covers or beer coasters. Groundwood pulp plays practically no role in corrugated base papers.
HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points)
This is a risk-based hazard analysis, a control system for quality assurance in all production processes that have to do with food – from production to distribution to storage.
Enhancement and product protection through hologram and hologram foil application:
Using heat and pressure, a metallic foil or hologram is applied to materials such as lightweight papers, cardboard, laminated corrugated board and corrugated cardboard (embossed foil printing).
This is a three-layer sandwich board with a honeycomb core (based on the honeycomb principle) inside. The construction is extremely stable, impact-resistant and is characterised by a long service life and very good flatness. A combination with corrugated board is possible. Honeycomb cardboard is made of recycled paper. Since it can withstand high vertical pressure, it can be used in many ways. For example, it is suitable for packaging sensitive goods such as technical equipment, mirrors and instruments.
Hygiene Flute® (Company/Innovation)
The Hygiene Flute® is a product development by GISSLER & PASS. It is made of waste-paper-free, bleached Kraftliner paper. The material is suitable for direct contact with food and meets the requirements of EC Regulation 1935/2004 on direct food contact and traceability. Discounters appreciate Hygiene Flute® as a shelf-ready solution. It is considered an alternative to solid board.
CC (International Colour Consortium) profile
This is a standardised data set that describes the colour space of a colour input or colour reproduction device, e.g. a monitor, printer or scanner. The aim of colour management is to bring about colour reproduction that is as constant as possible on all output devices. For example: platesetter in the prepress area.
It must be possible to transfer the colour reproduction of the print consistently. Furthermore: The consortium is an association of several manufacturers in the field of graphics, image processing and layout software. The aim is to standardise colour management systems. As a result, colour profiles have been standardised internationally.
Impulse buying (spontaneous purchases)
Buying behaviour in which the customer makes a purchase based on immediate stimuli at the point of sale. These purchase decisions are associated with high emotionality and rather low cognitive involvement. Retailers try to trigger such spontaneous purchases through targeted external stimuli, e.g. through an eye-catching presentation of goods. The contrary of impulse buying is routine buying, buying on demand or habitual buying.
Inline-maschine / Inliner
Processing machine: As the core of the processing, the inline machine produces the finished packaging from the sheet. Printing, die-cutting, gluing and folding take place one after the other (inline) on one machine. The majority of corrugated board packaging is produced on this machine.
Inner liner, single flute
Corrugated board consists of three parts: The outer cover sheet and the inner cover sheet are smooth. In the middle there is a corrugated sheet of paper. In a finished packaging, the inner liner is on the inside. Robert H. Thompson patented the single flute corrugated board in the USA on 17 January 1882.
To determine the dimensions of a corrugated board packaging, the inside is measured. Length x width x height are determined. Depending on the thickness of the material, the outer and inner dimensions may differ to a greater or lesser extent.
ISO-coated / ISO-coated v2 (ISO standard 12647-2)
Is the most widely used colour profile in the printing industry in Europe for the offset printing process. The standardised offset colour space is the basic requirement for producing colour-accurate proofs. 90 % of all proofs are produced according to this standard. Suitable for paper types 1 and 2, glossy and matt-coated materials.
ISO scale (also referred to as Euro scale)
Refers to printing according to uniform standards that define the effect of CMYK colours. It is printed according to ISO scale, current standard DIN ISO 122647-2 according to Fogra
Just-in-sequence is a type of delivery in procurement logistics: the required goods arrive at the right place at the right time, in the right type and quantity. Further processing takes place there immediately after their arrival. This means that the delivery of the components must fit the assembly sequence and take place in the right order. It is part of the suppliers’ job to pack the goods accordingly. Ideally, no inspection of the delivery is necessary: one component after the other arrives, is unpacked and directly installed. Just-in-sequence is an extension of just-in-time.
Just-in-time refers to a delivery in logistics when it arrives at the customer at the exact moment of need.
Kraftliner is an extremely stable type of paper with a wood fibre content of 80 percent and a recycled fibre content of 20 percent. It is very strong and offers protection against tearing, crushing and bursting. This makes it ideal for transporting heavy or sharp-edged products. Kraftliner paper is used as “liner”. This means that it is applied to the corrugated paper as an inner and/or outer liner. The surface is almost closed and very smooth. For this reason, Kraftliner can be printed very well.
Laminating or gluing: Laminating is the process of gluing another material onto the corrugated board. In offset printing, for example, the corrugated board packaging is not printed directly but glued to an offset-printed paper sheet.
Lenticular film – lenticular printing (illusion of depth / movement)
With the lenticular technique, various effects can be displayed / printed: 3D effects, changing images / flips, animations, zoom effects, morphing effects.
Light type D50
Light type D50 (5000 Kelvin): Standard light, the basis for reliable colour communication / print production. Best standard light for visual proofing, e.g. comparison between proof and production run with the result of the highest possible match. Light type D50 with 5000 Kelvin applies to the entire production process from preprint to the printing machine.
Print finishing with matt varnish: A classic variant of finishing is matt varnish. Here, the packaging is coated with an additional matt varnish layer over the entire surface after the actual printing. The matt varnish gives the printed image a softer appearance while protecting the surface of the packaging.
Special colours for finishing packaging in offset printing with gloss pigments similar to automotive metallic colours.
What is the effect of colour perception under certain ambient light conditions (e.g. when viewing a proof or print)? When a print is viewed under office lighting conditions, the colours often look quite different than when viewing print samples under normal light or neutral daylight. This colour change caused due to ambient light is called the metamerism effect.
Microembossing as the first stage of possible security features: Microembossing is an embossing foil process between plane and structure as the finest stage of deformation. No counterpressure die is needed as with relief, because the surface of the foil is deformed, but not the substrate. The special effect of microembossing is the cybernetic effect due to the refraction of light on the surface structure when the viewing angle is changed. This type can also be used in conjunction with other embossing processes.
Modular display systems (Products/POS Displays)
Modular display systems comprise a modular system that can be individually assembled according to the modular principle, and which is used in particular for secondary placements in retail.
Modular packaging systems whose dimensions are adapted to specific basic formats.
The moiré effect, or in other words, a screen overlay, is a common phenomenon in the view of prints. It occurs when two uniform patterns overlap unevenly, creating new (unwanted) patterns.
Multi-flute corrugated board
Multi-flute corrugated board consists of at least two flute sheets or more, each of which is glued to a smooth intermediate sheet and each of which has an outer and an inner smooth end sheet.
Packaging that consists of different materials, e.g. corrugated board combined with plastic / film or wood (material mix).
The five senses of the human being – seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling and feeling/touching – are summarised under multisensory.
At the POS, secondary placements that appeal to all the shopper’s senses through sound and light modules and/or the use of scented varnishes create a positive world of experience and thus entice spontaneous purchases.
Indirect planographic printing process: The inks are absorbed by the printing plate and applied to the cardboard via a blanket cylinder. The printing and non-printing areas are almost on the same level and work is done according to the grease-water repulsion principle: the printing plate is first moistened with each revolution and then the ink is absorbed. All areas that have absorbed water remain ink-free (ink is repelled) and thus blank/white. In all other areas, the printing plate takes up the ink and releases it onto the substrate. In this high-quality printing process, a sheet of paper/cardboard is usually printed on the offset press and then laminated (glued) onto an open or closed sheet of corrugated board and further processed. Field of application: high-quality packaging and displays with/without finishing as well as for smaller print runs.
“Omni” is derived from the Latin word “omnis” and means “everything”. The idea behind omni-channel packaging is to provide customers with a uniform and consistent experience with a brand or product. No matter where there are touchpoints between consumers and the product – online and offline – consumers ideally encounter omni-channel packaging everywhere. This means that the packaging looks the same virtually and in reality.
Customers who have visited a company’s website or come across products on social media, for example, expect the packaging in shops to be identical or at least very similar. Omni-channel packaging has a high recognition value, makes it easier to find the right products at the point of sale and strengthens customers’ identification with the brand. Multi-channel packaging can be distinguished from this: Multi-channel means that products are sold in different ways. But while there is some overlapping, there is no real merging. With omni-channel packaging, everything becomes one.
In a single flute corrugated board, the corrugated sheet is glued on both sides with a smooth layer of paper. Most often, the outer liner is printed, as it is the first to be perceived by the consumer.
The term “packaging” describes the wrapping of a material or goods.
As a rule, packaging is made up of two components: packaging means and packaging aids.
Utilities for packaging and sealing packaging materials, e.g. adhesive tapes, strapping tapes, parcel string, labels, banderoles, closures, clips, etc.
Packaging materials are containers made of different materials such as metal, glass, plastic, paper or textiles that enclose a product to be packaged. Here, the packaging materials are either in direct contact with the product or they protect the contents. They may also serve to hold products together during transport. Cartons, cans, jars and bags are considered packaging materials.
Packaging materials are the materials from which packaging means and packaging aids are made. These are, for example, corrugated cardboard, glass, metal, wood or plastic.
This is a quantity of goods to be shipped by the shipper that are bundled into a unit and shipped together. This can be boxes, pallets, wire mesh boxes, roller containers etc.
Pallet displays (products/POS Displays/pallet displays)
Pallet displays provide the perfect secondary placement for your products directly at the point of sale.
Corrugated board wrapping ensures that palletised goods, for example, can also be presented in an eye-catching way. The wrapping of goods and pallets offers sufficient space for advertising messages and information and unites the goods into a single unit.
Pantone colour system
Pantone is a colour system commonly used in graphics and printing. Since everyone perceives colours differently, uniform colour values as defined in the Pantone colour system help to speak practically the same language so that everyone knows which colour is meant.
Slit / hole punching in hollow bodies or flat objects. For packaging materials, a line of perforations close together as a tear-open or tear-off perforation provides a practical opening aid for the end user.
Cutting system for cutting corrugated board (cutting & creasing) to create sample/prototype types of packaging/display and/or for short runs.
POPAI is an acronym for Point of Purchase Advertising International. It is an international association that was founded in 1936 in the United States of America. It promotes the interests of industry, trade, POS producers and service providers. The association has more than 2,000 members worldwide, about half of them on the European continent. In October 2015, POPAI North America and the Association for Retail Environments (A.R.E.) merged to form the “Shop! Environments Association”. The POPAI Award is presented once a year. For more than 50 years, this prize has been awarded to companies and service providers for special POS instruments, displays and digital POS media. The competition takes place in 14 countries and regions. Among them are the USA, Australia, New Zealand, France, Great Britain, Germany, South Africa, India, Russia and China.
From the retailer’s point of view, the point of sale, or POS for short, is the place where the retailer presents the goods on offer to the consumer.
POS display (products/POS displays)
The abbreviation POS stands for “Point of Sale”. Displays are sales-promoting advertising media for the presentation of goods.
In the prepress stage, the data provided by the customer, such as text, images and graphics, are checked and made ready for printing. This prepress work ensures a high-quality print product.
In order to attract the attention of shoppers at the POS, products are often staged in secondary placements / POS displays outside the shelves. Here, pre-placement posters are fixed to the actual display poster, the side wall or the base with spacers, for example, and thus achieve an attention-grabbing 3D effect.
This is where the corrugated base paper is printed, which will later be used as liner paper in the corrugator.
Packaging that encloses the product and comes into direct contact with the product.
Print control strip
Colour control and measuring technology for sheetfed offset printing. The print control strip contains all the colours to be printed and is placed at the start or end of the sheet outside the print motif and the cutting die.
Print registration / tolerance
Matching of the individual partial colours in multicolour printing. The partial colours printed one after the other exactly on top of each other result in the final printed image. If the colours do not match exactly, the printed image will appear blurred, out of focus or with colour shifts and will have a negative effect on quality.
Printing varnish – unlike dispersion varnish – is oil-based. It is a colourless varnish layer (matt or glossy) that is applied to the printed cardboard after the printing process using a printing machine and seals the ink in this way. This enhances the surface and protects the packaging from abrasion and scratches.
Product feed system
Technical solution for trays and/or displays at the POS with which the products are automatically slid/pushed forward after removal of a unit so that no gaps are created.
Individually tailored to your needs and budget, we set the stage perfectly for your product.
A proof is the simulation of a later print, either as a soft proof on the monitor (PDF), as a hard proof with paper white simulation (colour binding) or as a colour strip according to Pantone specifications on original material created in the colour laboratory (printed).
PSO (Process Standard Offset Printing)
Process Standard Offset Printing according to ISO 12647. This is an internationally recognised standardised, quality-oriented industrial printing process. This set of rules was developed in a cooperation between Fogra Forschungsgesellschaft Druck e.V. (German Graphic Technology Research Association) and the Bundesverband Druck und Medien e.V. (German Printing and Media Industries Federation). The production process is monitored, controlled and checked from data preparation through printing plate production to the finished print. Around 300 printing companies worldwide hold this certificate. It is valid for two years.
Raw material made from wood for paper production.
Puncture test with pendulum machine
Test method: Used to determine the resistance that a clamped corrugated board specimen presents to the penetration of a puncture body.
Recycling loop (Sustainability/recycling Loop)
The term recycling loop covers the process that a resource, material or product goes through from its production, through its use, to its reprocessing and subsequent possible reuse.
A relief coating is used to finish packaging/displays. Previously defined areas are highlighted three-dimensionally by the relief coating. The glossy coating is printed in relief, which creates a noticeable haptic effect.
Repro / reprography
Collective term for all processes of permanent photographic reproduction of originals.
The quality of a graphic or photo depends on the “dpi” (dots per inch). The higher the dpi, the better the resolution and thus the quality. In the offset printing sector, 300 dpi is considered the standard.
RESY stands for “Recycling System”. The RESY Organisation für Wertstoffentsorgung GmbH was founded by the Association of the Corrugated Cardboard Industry. The RESY logo means that the corresponding cardboard boxes are predominantly made of cardboard and are recyclable. Other materials such as plastic are included to a small extent – if at all. The system’s partners undertake to take back the cardboard and return it to the recycling loop.
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)
This allows data to be read and stored without contact. An RFID system consists of one (or more) RFID transponder(s) with active or passive tags such as signs and labels and a reader.
RIP data (Raster Image Processor)
Is special software or a combination of hardware and software. For example, PostScript PDF that is converted into a raster graphic, usually to prepare it for an output device. E.g. in pre-print, the data is sent to a CTP output device/system (Computer-To-Plate) after adjustment, in order to directly produce a printing plate according to the artwork. A RIP has two main functions:
a) Conversions from vector graphics to raster graphics of specific resolutions.
b) Recalculations of raster graphics for conversion to other resolutions or sizes.
Rotary die cutter
In rotary die-cutting, the die-cutting process takes place by rotating the tools (in contrast to the straight-line die-cutting movement of the flatbed die-cutter). The cutting and creasing tools are mounted accordingly on a semi-circular cutting die.
RRP (Retail Ready Packaging)
Retail ready packaging is easy for suppliers and sales staff to recognise at the point of sale and, thanks to perforations and tear threads, uncomplicated to open without any other aids. This makes it easier for staff in supermarkets and discounters to put the goods on the shelves. At the same time, Retail ready packaging ensures that the products are attractively presented to customers: elaborate printing attracts attention. The goods are presented in an inviting way and are easy to remove.
Sales packaging (products/packaging)
Sales packaging puts the product in an eye-catching light at the point of sale.
A lightweight, very moisture-sensitive interleaving or inner paper, usually made from unsorted wastepaper (low grade).
SCM (Supply Chain Management)
Planning, controlling and optimising the flow of goods, information, money and people along the entire length of a value chain, i.e. from the supplier of raw materials to the end customer.
Different screen angles are set in offset and flexoprinting. Each printing process has its own printing characteristics. In the offset process, all screen angles can be used without any problems. The best angle assignment in the four-colour process has proven to be the following angle:
K (Black) = 15°
Magenta = 45°
Cyan = 75°
Yellow = 0°
Screen printing is a process in which each colour is applied individually to the material to be printed using a stencil. A rubber squeegee presses the ink through a close-meshed screen. If no ink is to be applied to certain areas, the stencil is made impermeable at these points. Simple motifs, logos and lettering can be applied to corrugated board using the screen printing technique. Colour gradients and shading are not possible.
Only with screening is it possible to create different tonal value levels. This creates so-called non-genuine tonal values. The term refers to the fact that these do not result from different ink layer thicknesses. With autotypical screening (AM), the surface is divided into a fixed number of screen cells. The size of the screen dots in the cell determines the tonal values: smaller dots produce lighter, larger ones darker tonal values. With AM screening, a different angulation of the individual colours is crucial. This prevents unwanted side effects such as moiré. (A moiré effect occurs when several fine screens are superimposed on each other. This creates new patterns, similar to an optical illusion).
With frequency-modulated screening (FM), there is no specific pattern. The dots are arranged randomly in the screen base quadrants. This rules out repetitive sequences and moiré effects. Disadvantages of the random distribution of dots are unstable sequences.
Second packaging stage after the primary packaging, the so-called outer packaging (e.g. cardboard packaging, gift packaging). It usually has no direct contact with the product and is used for additional product protection and sales promotion.
Secondary placement (products/POS displays)
For the presentation of a special product (e.g. for new product launches or seasonal articles), another space is available in the trade in addition to the regular shelf placement in order to highlight the product, generate impulse purchases and thus increase sales. The presentation of the goods on this second space is usually done in displays of various types (e.g. pallet displays, floor displays, counter displays, shop-in-shop solutions).
SEDEX (Supplier Ethical Data Exchange)
SEDEX is a private membership organisation that aims to make the sustainability of supply chains transparent. The data platform provides an overview of the sustainability commitment of participating companies.
Starting product obtained from wood for the production of corrugated base papers, consisting of cellulose and portions of lignin. High stiffness.
Shelf-ready packaging (products/packaging/SRP)
Shelf-ready packaging, or SRP, is high-quality, attention-grabbing printed packaging that provides consumers with an appealing product presentation on store shelves.
Shipping packaging (products/packaging/transport packaging)
Shipping packaging is part of the transport packaging and is used to secure goods in transit and protect them from external damage caused by environmental influences.
Single face corrugated board
Single face corrugated board consists of a smooth paper sheet (top sheet) and a corrugated paper sheet (flute).
Single flute corrugated board
Single flute corrugated board consists of two smooth paper sheets (inner and outer liner) between which a corrugated paper sheet (flute) is glued.
Packaging consisting of only one raw material (e.g. made of paper), which makes single-sort recycling possible.
Packaging with extended functions, additional benefits, communication with the outside world, e.g. via smartphones.
SMI (Supplier-Managed Inventory)
The supplier takes care of the customer’s inventory management and disposition. For this purpose, he receives access to the stock levels and customer demand.
Social Responsibility (Sustainability/sustainability strategy)
(Corporate) Social Responsibility (CSR) – responsibility for social issues beyond the actual business purpose.
High-density cardboard usually made from several layers of recycled paper.
Certain areas – depending on the motif – remain unprinted. For example, there are often spaces for price information or the best-before date (BBD). Technical recesses are also possible: adhesive tabs and adhesion points usually remain free of ink and varnish so that the packaging remains functional.
Special colours, also called spot colours or full-tone colours, are a specially produced colour tone, either from a print fan or from a print sample, which cannot be reproduced 1:1 from the 4-colour set. By using a spot colour in the logo, this can be regulated in the printing process independently of the 4-colour set.
Special packaging (products/packaging/special packaging)
Special packaging is sales packaging that immediately catches the eye with innovative ideas, extravagant shapes, cut-outs or colours.
Corrugated base papers with special properties (e.g. barrier papers with special coating).
Spectrophotometer / -metry
The spectrophotometer is an instrument for measuring light intensity. The measuring surface is illuminated over the spectrum from ultraviolet to infrared (360 to 780 nm). The spectrophotometer measures either the amount of light that an object reflects or the amount of light that an object absorbs. In addition to paper, liquids, plastic, metal and paint are also measured.
With spot varnishing or partial UV varnishing, selected areas of the printed image are refined with a colourless high-gloss varnish. The combination of glossy areas on a matt base makes the packaging an eye-catcher.
Load-bearing, stackable box made of corrugated cardboard with generous removal opening to stock or also present products of the food and non-food sector in a space-saving and at the same time clearly arranged way. Can be used in shelving systems or as/in displays.
Large figure made of corrugated cardboard.
Strip crush resistance
This is a test method (SCT Short Crush Test) according to DIN 54 518, which determines the quality of corrugated base papers. A standardised paper strip is used. The force that a strip of paper set up in a ring can withstand without buckling is tested. It is considered an alternative test method to ring crush resistance.
Sustainable packaging (sustainability)
GISSLER & PASS rely exclusively on environmentally friendly raw materials for their products.
Packaging and displays are designed and manufactured according to customer requirements for a specific product or brand.
Testliner (TL) is a standard multi-ply paper used in the corrugated industry as an inner liner or outer liner in packaging. It is made from 100 per cent recycled paper. It performs well but is more sensitive to moisture and less burst resistant than Kraftliner paper. There are three TL groups: T1, T2 and T3. The highest quality fibres are used in T1.
Transport packaging (products/packaging/transport packaging)
Transport packaging is packaging that is used to transport goods safely and to protect them optimally from environmental influences and damage.
Tray / card tray / automatic tray
Open, stackable die-cut packaging made of corrugated board for individual product packaging. Typical applications are e.g. fruit & vegetables, dairy and chilled products. With an additional cover, the product is safely protected for transport.
A tray refers to an open and stackable die-cut packaging made of corrugated or solid board, which is used for transport to the retailer and for product presentation of several individual packages at the point of sale (POS).
Turning over and inverting: In order to be able to produce a print product in face and reverse printing with only one printing plate, the sheet can be turned over or inverted.
Turning over: the gripper edge remains the same and only the side lay is changed.
Inverting: here only the gripper edge is changed, the side lay remains the same.
Base paper is uncoated. This makes the paper surface rough, open-pored and natural. An alternative name for base paper is “uncoated paper”. It can be written on easily and is therefore popular as writing paper. In the so-called coating process, a binder is applied to the base paper.
To counteract high dot gain and drying times in the printing process, various forms of colour reduction can be implemented.
With under-colour reduction (UCR), the cyan, magenta and yellow colour components are partially reduced and replaced by black.
With ground colour reduction (GCR), the colour components in cyan, magenta and yellow are significantly reduced and these are enormously increased in black.
USP (Unique Selling Proposition)
Unique selling proposition, unique selling point: The USP should stand out from competing offers by highlighting the unique benefits of one’s own offer and thus convince the consumer to buy.
USP GISSLER & PASS: Inspire with performance!
It’s not what we do, but how we do it that makes the difference: 100 % solution orientation – we do what our customers need – creatively, flexibly, quickly and easily.
UV varnishes consist exclusively of solid particles. This means that they do not contain any water or solvents. After application, they are cured by UV light. They refine printed products and are wonderfully suitable for impressive optical and/or haptic effects.
“Verband der Wellpappenindustrie” (German Association of the Corrugated Board Industry). The VDW is a registered association that was founded on 25 May 1948. It is the industry’s organ and represents 30 corrugated board companies with around 100 production sites in Germany.
Wastepaper comprises the paper waste generated in industry, commerce and private households, which is processed for recycling. The collected paper waste is used, among other things, as a basis for the production of recycled paper, packaging and printed products such as newspapers and magazines.
Wet-strength corrugated board
“Wet-strength” means that packaging made from corrugated board retains its strength even when damp and wet. To achieve these properties, synthetic resins are added during paper production, for example. This increases the stability of the packaging, making it suitable for overseas transport and hazardous goods, among other things.
A wobbler is an artificial bait used for angling predatory fish,- an attractant. In the area of merchandise presentation at the POS, wobblers are used to draw consumers’ attention to a certain product: advertising messages on small posters that are fixed to the shelf or display with flexible spacers, which pop out and move with a light breeze, attract attention and get shoppers to “hang around”.
Wrap-around packaging is a flat blank of corrugated board that is folded precisely around the product. This creates very compact and stable packaging. Wrap-around packaging can also be used to accommodate several products in one package (e.g. for promotion campaigns or multi-product packaging).